Lithium Extraction & Refining
Cutting-edge processing solutions to produce EV metals, including battery-grade lithium, cobalt, and nickel salts

Lithium has become essential to the global economy, primarily driven by the demand for energy-efficient electric vehicles and the move toward the decarbonization of the transportation industry. Due to their weight, reactiveness, and ability to store large amounts of energy, lithium batteries are ideal for powering everything from cars to watches to toys. However, raw material supplies are scarce, and with the demand for lithium resources increasing, miners are developing new reserves and must process lithium to the highest purity. Extracting lithium and processing lithium-bearing minerals or brines requires a specialized approach due to the presence of other mineral salts.   

Solutions are needed which provide regulatory compliance and achieve sustainability goals by reducing environmental footprint. Aquatech’s ICD Process Technology group understands the challenges associated with lithium mining and is positioned to tailor a solution that is both reliable and cost-effective for your lithium processing operations. For over 50 years, Aquatech ICD has been a recognized global leader and pioneer in evaporation and crystallization solutions and applied testing, making us an accountable partner you can trust to take your feed from testing to final output for high-purity EV battery metal production. 

Source of Lithium

Lithium is formed naturally in the earth and can be found in several forms, including lithium minerals and brines, which all require different methods of extraction.

Lithium Minerals
Lithium Minerals

Hard Rock, Spodumene, Clay, etc.

Lithium Brine

Salar & Geothermal

Beginning with the processing of lithium chloride (from brine) or lithium sulfate (from the extraction of spodumene), Aquatech provides end-to-end process technology solutions to produce technical and battery grades of lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide. Our complete lithium processing capabilities include the following:

  • Battery-Grade: lithium carbonate (>99.9% purity), lithium hydroxide
  • Lithium Salts: lithium chloride, lithium sulfate, lithium bromide, and lithium phosphate
  • Resource Recovery: boric acid, potassium chloride, potassium sulfate, magnesium sulfate, sodium sulfate, sodium chloride
Our solutions for lithium concentration & processing

We provide our customers with an unrivaled combination of process expertise that covers the full spectrum of lithium production. Our focus is on providing end-to-end solutions, from applied development and testing, engineering and design, project management and execution, through post-installation operations and maintenance.  

Every lithium-rich deposit has different characteristics, and it is important to analyze the treatment stream while developing the resource. Aquatech’s experience with bench- and pilot-scale testing ensures you achieve high-purity, battery-grade lithium carbonate or lithium hydroxide. From our in-house research and development capabilities with a proven track record for innovation to our team of process specialists, we are equipped to provide in-depth analysis, precise process design solutions, and assist with process development studies, test work, and commercial process development. 

Our portfolio evaporation and crystallization technologies for lithium processing includes:  


  • Thermal evaporation 
  • Multiple effect evaporation 
  • Multiple effect distillation 
  • Horizontal Spray Tube Film 
  • Solar Evaporation  


  • Draft Tube Crystallizer 
  • Vacuum Crystallizer 
  • Forced Circulation Crystallizer  
  • Cooling Crystallizer 
  • Integrated Reaction Crystallizer  

Our resource recovery portfolio includes the recovery of high-purity brine or salt crystals. The salt recovery systems combine our experience and expertise in physical-chemical, membrane, and thermal technologies resulting in a substantially reduced environmental footprint. Our solutions are designed with the flexibility to enable their integration into a new or existing facility and can be customized to provide different purity levels based on your facility’s requirements. 

Our commitment goes beyond technology implementation and plant start-up. We integrate technology, expertise, and financing through our services portfolio to consistently deliver reliable performance at a predictable cost. 

  • Mobile/Rental Equipment helps maintain business continuity and consistently achieve your desired treatment and sustainability goals.  
  • Outsourced Solutions allow you to focus on your core operations while we take responsibility for your treatment systems.  
  • Aftermarket Services ensures the long-term sustainability of your operations throughout the lifecycle of your processing equipment treatment equipment. 

Our zero liquid discharge (ZLD) technology eliminates liquid waste by converting it into disposable dry solids. To meet strict environmental discharge guidelines and provide effective treatment with the lowest possible life-cycle costs, we offer integrated, site-specific ZLD solutions. These are based on standalone thermal/evaporative processes, membrane processes, or a combination of the two, namely, hybrid systems resulting in added value, ease of operation and reduced operating costs. 

Aquatech offers a holistic end-to-end solution for EV battery metal processing, from applied development and testing, engineering and design, project management and execution, through post-installation operations & maintenance. To get in contact with our Lithium, contact us today.  

Click here to download our Solutions for Lithium brochure

Press Release: Aquatech Awarded Contract For Lithium Refining Process At Lithium Americas Thacker Pass Project

Aquatech has commenced work on the project, which includes multiple process trains incorporating evaporation and crystallization systems for the purification and chemical production of lithium carbonate (Li2CO3). In partnership with ICD Process Technologies, a division of Aquatech, Lithium Americas has achieved over 99.9% purity of Li2CO3 from Thacker Pass lithium-bearing clays.

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