Integrated, Ultra-High Recovery Membrane Process

AquaR2RO is an enhanced reverse osmosis process that integrates a unique membrane configuration to cost-effectively treat difficult waters. The AquaR2RO (R2=Robust and Reliable) process renders ultra-high recovery (99%) in treating high TDS water due to its ability to withstand higher than normal operating pressures. High recoveries across the membranes reduce the sizing of the thermal equipment, which constitutes the major part of the CAPEX and OPEX of the recycle system.

AquaR2RO can handle high TDS preconditioned waters with contaminants like organics, COD, and oil and grease as it operates at high cross flow velocities and a low per pass recovery. The salts rejected at the surface of the membranes do not cause any precipitation or concentration polarization effect. They immediately diffuse into bulk solution, and the concentration happens gradually.


The AquaR2RO system configuration uses plate and frame design and is designed to handle high pressure up to 2000 PSI depending on the water quality. At the steady state condition, the AquaR2RO system operates at a consistent feed concentration. AquaR2RO can handle some waters with high turbidity of 10-15 NTU, which sometimes cannot be treated with ultrafiltration membranes. AquaR2RO can be successfully employed in conventional RO plants operating at lower recoveries to recover additional water. AquaR2RO can also be retrofitted with an existing Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) plant that is under performing or needs capacity enhancement.

AquaR2RO Benefits:

  • Feed pressure tolerance up to 140 bar
  • Smaller flow, high concentration reject streams of >12%
  • Low susceptibility to scaling compared to other RO systems
  • High resistance to organic fouling COD up to 2000 ppm
  • Tolerance to higher turbidity water >10 NTU and to dissolved oil of up to 50 ppm
  • High reliability of operation due to higher tolerance to feed variability
  • Higher up-time due to less frequent cleaning
  • Retrofitting existing RO systems not performing to the desired level